Chapter 4 Budgetary control

Chapter 4 Budgetary control

budget development process

Under performance budgeting objectives are established for each func­tion or programme. A person in charge of a function or programme is made responsible for achieving the objectives within the budgeted expenditure. This budget is prepared to know the plant facility required for production. The purpose of this budget is to decide the of each process on plant, cost of machines, overtime working, expanding the production, utilization of surplus capacity. Whether it is personal, corporate, or government finance, everything requires planning to actualize short-term or long-term goals.

short term

This table provides columns for different levels of activity, and the expenses are computed and recorded against the corresponding activity levels. Hence, a number of budgets are prepared for different levels of activity. However, it may be noted here that all the budgets are included in one budget providing one column for each level of activity. The expenses are normally recorded under the heads variable, fixed and semi-variable.

Levels of Involvement in the Budgeting Process

Of cou, determining how much to spend on various expenses and projecting sales is only one part of the process. Company executives also have to contend with a myriad of other factors, including projecting capital expenditures, which are large purchases of fixed assets such as machinery or a new factory. They must also plan for their ongoing cash needs, revenue shortfalls, and the economic backdrop. Regardless of the type of business, the ability to gauge performance using budgets is critical to a company’s overall financial health. A small business remains a going concern due in part to its ability to quickly adjust its strategy and related financial plan in response to changing environmental conditions. For example, a business might hire additional salespeople when a new product is introduced, or a company might decrease production to accommodate a decline in product sales.

A typical Types Of Budget In Accounting budget may look like as given in Tables 13.1 and 13.2. The conditions and assumptions for preparing budgets should remain unaltered for a long period. Basic budgets are like long-term budget act as a guidelines for preparing short-term budgets. Managers and employees together frame the financial plan, keeping in mind goals and targets—set by top-level management. Following are different types of budgets prepared by individuals, businesses, and governments. It uses a mixture of top-down where top management allocates resources and bottom-up approaches where the lower management also participates in resource allocation. It depicts an accurate financial picture of the company using inputs from the financial statements, cash flow statements, and other forecasting reports.

Operating Budget

Accounting PeriodAccounting Period refers to the period in which all financial transactions are recorded and financial statements are prepared. Shareholders EquityShareholder’s equity is the residual interest of the shareholders in the company and is calculated as the difference between Assets and Liabilities. The Shareholders’ Equity Statement on the balance sheet details the change in the value of shareholder’s equity from the beginning to the end of an accounting period. Anticipated revenue is the potential cash inflow that a person, business entity, or government might generate.

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